(NIMESULIDE 100 MG & PARACETAMOL 325 MG)
NIMESULIDE: – Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Its approved indications are the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old.
PARACETAMOL: – It is commonly used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Its therapeutic effects are similar to salicylates, but it lacks anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and gastric ulcerative effects.
1. Nimesulide Food, gender and advanced age have negligible effects on nimesulide pharmacokinetics. The therapeutic effects of Nimesulide are the result of its complete mode of action which targets a number of key mediators of the inflammatory process such as: COX-2 mediated prostaglandins, free radicals, proteolytic enzymes and histamine.
2. Paracetamol: –
Paracetamol (INN) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. It is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics. It is extremely safe in standard doses, but because of its wide availability, deliberate or accidental overdoses are not uncommon. Paracetamol, unlike other common analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, has no anti-inflammatory properties or effects on platelet function, and it is not a member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. At therapeutic doses paracetamol does not irritate the lining of the stomach nor affect blood coagulation, kidney function, or the fetal ductus arteriosus (as NSAIDs can). Like NSAIDs and unlike opioid analgesics, paracetamol does not cause euphoria or alter mood in any way. Paracetamol and NSAIDs have the benefit of being completely free of problems with addiction, dependence, tolerance and withdrawal. Paracetamol is used on its own or in combination with pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone.
• ABSORPTION: – Rapidly absorbed following oral administration.
• METABOLISM: – Hepatic. Extensive biotransformation, mainly to 4-hydroxynimesulide (which also appears to be biologically active).
• ROUTE OF ELIMINATION: – Renal (50%), fecal (29%)
• HALF-LIFE: -1.8–4.7 hours
• ABSORPTION: – Rapid and almost complete
• PROTEIN BINDING: -25%
• METABOLISM: – It primarily undergoes glucuronidation (45-55% of the dose) in which this process is facilitated by UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B15 in the liver or UGT1A10 in the gut. 30-35% of the dose undergoes sulfation. This biotransformation is facilitated by SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1A4, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1. A small percentage of paracetamol is oxidized by CYP2E1 to form N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine (NAPQI), a toxic metabolite which is then conjugated to glutathione and excreted renally. Studies suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 are the primary cytochrome P450 isozymes responsible for the generation of toxic metabolites. Accumulation of NAPQI may occur if primary metabolic pathways are saturated.
INDICATION: – For the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old.